Monday, August 28, 2006

Lebanon, Israel, and Class Strugge (Chapter 4: Class Struggle in Lebanon post 9/11)

Status prior to 9/11

As Chapter 3 ended with Syrian hegemony, the United States in the mean time has been dormant regarding Lebanon and Syria's relations. It expressed few opinions on Syria, but not fully active before 9/11. There were two goals for the United States:

1) Focusing on the Peace treaties between Israel and Palestine
2) Establishing better relations with Latin America on a political level and not only economical level.

Syria placed an iron grip on Lebanon. Even their own citizens inside the American University of Beirut were monitored for suspicious activism. The peak of re-writing history to isolate the angry christian core, represented by the Lebanese Forces and Free Patriotic Movement peaked. For example in the memory of the foundation of the Phalangist Party, the pro-Syrian karim Bakradoni was its president. The guests were the Syrian Baathi Assim Kanso, the Syrian Social Nationalist Party's Ali Kanzo, the Progressive Socialist Party's Walid Junblatt in his mood for Syrian allegiance, representatives for AMAL, and plenty others. The talk was Junblatt paying respect for the "sacrifices" of the Phalangist Party which is ironical that his party did the a huge massacre on their people during the Mountain Wars post Bashir Gemayil assasination. In the end, Bakradoni speaks and he says as follows:

"... And to the extreme Christians of Lebanon, be neutral, and sieze to be fanatic. Be respectful and avoid racism to the Syrians. We are in a common cause, if you except the Syrians, then Bashir Gemayil's words would be achieved on the ground. " To be honest, Bashir Gemayil was the most extremist against the Syrians, but the re-writement of history had to take place.

el Hariri had resigned in 1998 to Salim el-Huss, whose Arab nationalism made him pro-Syrian in the line up. In his time, he integrated the value-added tax which was planned by the Harriri economical business machinary. Expectations were that the VAT would cover 50% of the National Debt. Ironically, neither Harriri nor el-Huss's calculations were correct. Revenue, and not profit, only increased by 15-30%. Rafiq Harriri's main plan during the nineties were to build Down Town, and form it as a global city with Saudi investments and bring forth investments and customers to Lebanon.

In 2000, Harriri did a strong come back sweeping 18 out of 18 in Beirut district while el-Huss and his list collapsed. It was the first elections that the Armenian Nationalist party Tachnak lost most of the Armenian chairs available. Nevertheless, the final decision maker was Syria.

9/11 occurs

The United States has maintained an image of an touched nation. Exluding for Pearl Harbor during World War II, the United States was not attacked since by another country. Neither the cold war nor afterwards the USA was attacked by a foreign country. It was threatened by the Cuban Crisis, but won that arguement on the political arena. Even though the United States did not invade Cuba, it remained under siege despite the agreement with the USSR which meant ending the siege of the naval siege on Cuba.

I remember perfectly well since I was in my university with few comrades. We heard that a plane hit the first tower of the World Trade Center and we rushed to the Womens' dormitory to watch. First impression was that it was a sequel to Will Smith's independence day and the media is playing tricks on us to promote a movie. When the twin towers crumbled down, we all go stunned. As citizens who suffered a lot from US foreign policy, we felt a good feeling that the USA got a taste of its own medicine, as Marxists, we were sad for the Proletariat who died while doing their job. For an 9 hours, we remained talking about how great the plan was coordinated and started thinking. We directly pinpointed out Bin Laden from Afghanistan and started developing conspiracy theories as how probably he got the best of the collapsed Stalinist Regime the ex-Soviet KGB officers.

I will not deny that plenty of Lebanese were actually happy for witnessing the US might as an invincible country collapsed. People had enough of outcomes due to their hardcore treatment to the US. The comrades and I were saddened about all those Proletariat, but we worried about the outcome. If it was Bin Laden, then the whole world has changed, and things will not look good for the Arabs. A lot of my friends later got rejected due to the fact they were labeled as Arabs or had Islamic names. We knew the world holds nothing good for the world as we anticipated US imperialism to conquer the world militarily and politically. Some of the ocomrades and in specific the reminants of the Stalinists in our group before leaving us for despising the party, bargained that Russia will remain as a checkpoint on the United States. As for us, we knew the stats of Russia is in no condition to face the United States, and whatever happened in Yugoslavia and Kosovo proved our point in the 1990s. As news of our friends suffering racism for being labeled Muslims on their passports (although plenty of the ones I know are Communists like me and Athiests), they suffered racism, and we were more than sure that the next hated "enemy" are gonna be the Arabs. Despite that the Bush administration, to be 100% objective, made a clear announcement in less than 72 hours that there is a difference between Islam and Bin Laden's group, the orientalist perspective took effect. Between Hollywood and the controlled media, effects took place.

For my side, I already have two relatives working in the World Trade Center. Luckily one had a vacation, and another was my second cousin who was starting day 1 in the WTC. Luckily for her, as she was entering the building, the first plane hit the neighboring tower, and they got evacuated to a 100m parameter instantly till further notice. We already heard that three lebanese perished between the planes or who worked in the towers . What made me laugh is the stereotyping of average US citizens. For example, CNN was interviewing a middle aged lady who was saying as follows: Personally, we couldn't have been more and more insulted by such a notion. In any case that interview was 2 days later and we were watching it at the Cafeteria screen, and most of the room goes as: "In your face, welcome to our world, ... the bystanders." Such reaction would be expected, in the end, we have been living such days all our lives while they just sit and coldly provide theories. In the end, the ones really hurt were the proletariat whether in the USA, or those in Afghanistan or Iraq. "I was talking a look at the balcony, I saw civilization... next thing it is all Beirut over here." Personally, we couldn't have been more and more insulted by such a notion. In any case that interview was 2 days later and we were watching it at the Cafeteria screen, and most of the room goes as: "In your face, welcome to our world, ... the bystanders."

Effects of 9/11 on the region in the Middle East

Already, the Arabs or 3rd World countries suffer from the Western "Superiority" look, and how already they want to impose on its people their "values". In any case, it is the result of "Western Colonialism" that blocked the evolution of societies. Then these ex-colonialists transform those ex-colonies to a center of cheap labor and market so that their elites can maximize profits.

Well, bottom line is, despite all that seggregation towards the Arabs, things now are worse. A lot of my friends who applied to Europe or United States got their applications canceled even though they were already accepted fair and square. Yet, this hatred also applied to everyone else. Hence Universities and schools boomed in Lebanon by the fall semester of 2001, while tourism increased to incredible heights, specially the gulf rich people prefered to go to Lebanon rather Europe in order to avoid this racial hatred. This boom boasted Harriri's plan to re-build Down Town.

Sadly, things were taking a different turn on the political level in Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, and Israel. Bush decided to wage a war on an unknown enemy: fighting terror. Fighting terror and "promoting" democracy under Bush Jr.'s logic is simply another adjective for the term "Pre-emptive Wars". Pre-emptive wars mean heck 'I can invade ya to protect myself' sort of reminding us of the Realist school pioneers.

One of the people who abused this war on terror was Mr. Ariel Sharon, the engineer of hundreds of massacres, the Prime Minister then of Israel. The very next day after Bush's speech to fight terror, he declared that he is engaged to fight this war on terror side by side with the US administration. Although the terrorists to him were the ones his earlier governments kicked outside their homes: the Palestinians. Special to 9/11, Sharon increased activities and aggression on the Palestinians all in the name of protecting Democracy (well Israeli) and fighting terror.

Prior to 9/11, Democracy was studied and analyzed in a socio-political perspective or also Historical. Suddenly, every pro-US opposition started talking about democracy. The increased bloodshed on the Palestinians (which increased in Benthalame and Janeen in Palestine while Yasser Arafat was sieged in his own office) had a major implication on Lebanon.

For starters, Mr. Bush Jr. invented the axis of evil, which simply means anyone that who opposes publicly the US foreign policy. Syria and Iran were two part of such axis. Both, also got influence on Lebanon as well. Second, Armitage labeled Hezbollah as a Team A terrorist team and Qaeda as Team B (although anyone who can pull such an operation on 9/11 is a Class A terrorist). Syria decided to tighten its grip on Lebanon, which meant suffocating more the opposition within Lebanon. The Shiite sect, which is expected to be over 50% of Lebanese population, felt directly threatened due to Bush labeling Hezbollah as a Terrorist group and bringing terror on Israeli boarder (although I do believe such Hollywood language did pay off).
Moreover, the bi-polarity of Bush into "either you are with us or against us" meant in defecto that the Shiite Sect is labeled as terrorists, and this increased the sectarian divide among the Lebanese people, specially pushing the Shiite Sect towards Syria, along with its allies.

On the other hand, the anti-Syrian opposition had some sparks of hope. They imagined that Syria would shrink away from Lebanon, or the US's war for "democracy" would end the presence of Syria in Lebanon, and hence regain their historical powers back. General Aoun appeared big time on TV dialogues from his 5 stars house and accused Hezbollah and Syria as terrorists. The Lebanese Forces' tone increased against the Syrians as Syria retaliated by doing blackmails, threats, or do a Pro-Syria demonstrations in support of its own presence within the Lebanese boarders. The change of US foreign policy has polarized Lebanon to a huge extent.

The Lebanese Forces, Free Patriotic Movement, and left-wing movements escalated their activism for freedom of speech and anti-censorship, while the opposing blocks retaliated with big Pro-Demonstrations. For instance, in 2002, the assumed "Independance Day" was celebrated under two seperate themes. For starters the anti-Syrian forces expressed the idea of "No Real dependance till Syria is out" while the other side expressed "What about the Sheba'a farms?" or "Full independance occurs when whole Lebanon is liberated from Israel." Eventually the pro-Syrians would manage to get the upper hand due to quantity of parties participating.

Hezbollah tended to stay away from domestic politics and focus on serving the rural Shiite areas. To go a little bit more to details, the only time they appeared in full support is during the celebration of certain historical moment, and related in specific to resistance. The speeches like all Pro-Syrian stressed on the need to protect Lebanon and liberate Sheba'a farms. The 4 decades old Hassan Nasrallah would in the end focus on national unity and the right of the people to resist. The end sentence would be the dedication of his 2000 victory to every Lebanese despite region and sect, and would say that this is not a Hezbollah victory but rather it is a Lebanese victory. The influence of Nasrallah on his audience has always left them in a trance-style mood as they always had this figure that united them.

From the other side, the Shiite elite representative dominated the public sector. MP Nabih Berri had been the chair of the Parlaiment for over 2 decades and a half. Most of the bureaucratic corruption in recruitment had been according to Sect. Whenever a Muslim Sunni was recruited for instance, a Maronite, a Durzi, a Shiite, and others were recruited at the same time. This led to a popular saying in Lebanon: "Six by Six repeated!" This means that again six newly recruited from different sects were recruited. Nabih Berri monopolized the Shiite recruitment. He attempted more than once to capitalize on that tactic to regain some grounds informally against Hezbollah's mass popularity. Actually by 2003 manicupality elections, Hezbollah almost eradicated AMAL movement in elections if Syria didn't intervene and give some space to AMAL to win.

In 2002, the Syrian Government attempted to isolate the Christians again, and re-stressed on the Christian League which had figures of Christian identity that advocated unity with Syria and attacked the isolationism that the Lebanese Forces and Free Patriotic Movement advocated. Aoun typically replied that Hezbollah were terrorists and left to the United States and met with the US congress to initiate "The Syrian Accountability Act" which included that other groups labeled as Terrorists operating in Syria should be disarmed (all started as liberation movements) while Syria withdraws unconditionally from Lebanon.

On a class struggle level, things look devastating as each sect followed its leader. The Lebanese Communist Party already lost its historical strength since 1990, ever since the Soviet Union collapsed and they lost control over the labor unions. This also includes the fact that the Central Committee had been monopolistic and corrupted. In any case, the Lebanese Communist Party was never shoved into the electoral equation even though they had a a good mass support.

The Syrian Social Nationalist Party, the other secular party, had its own problem. Even though they were re-united again (the Pro-Syria and Pro-Lebanon factions and ended up as pro-Syrian with utmost allegiance) deviated away from its goal and its active members focused mostly in defending Syria from a resistance and national unity point of views. Even though they are secular on Lebanese standards and historically racists towards the Jews without seperating between Jews and Zionists, they started to shift their views. In 1998, Noam Chomsky was supposed to do a visit to Lebanon and they were the first to threaten that they will assasinate him, but ended up in 2006 giving him the hero's welcome as his ideas spread more. The first Jewish scholar to visit Lebanon was in 2002 Dr. Finkelstein specially his book "The Holocaust Industry" was very popular. They began to change attitude between Jews and Zionists, and switched their arguement that "There is no difference between Zionism and Jews; however, any Jew renounces Israel or give up their citizenship meant that they are no longer Zionists or Jews." That attitude was attributed due to the writings of Talmod, and the goal to establish a Jewish Nation from the Euphrates to the Nile. This threatened the Syrian Nationalists royally, since this covers most of the land that they hailed as the great "Syrian Nation" (Syrian as Greater Syria).

The Anti-Syrian forces increased their racism towards Syrian Proletariat, and that covered the left-wing movements. They failed to understand that the Syrian Proletariat are not to be blamed, rather express solidarity with them in the face of their government. Few leftists adopted the slogan of "Unity of the Lebanese and Syrian Workers against the Syrian Government". The Lebanese Forces hated everyone including Junblatt, and focused that they need their Mount Lebanon back. Actually due to the mood swings of Junblatt, they someimes labeled him as a traitor, specially due to his offensive on "Qornet Shahwan". They restored the glories of a "Christian" Lebanon without being Arabs. As for the Free Patriotic Movement they were more and more presecuted as their Leader in Paris intensified his offensive on Syria and labeled them as "Invaders equal to the Israelis back in 1982". The Pro-Syrian forces simply replied sarcastically on the political level that it was the Free Partisans and Phalangists that invited the Syrians to enter, and hence under the legality of the Arab League, they were not an invading force. Besides, their withdrawal probably meant a political void and hence a civil war.

As for the second most hated was el-Harriri. Even though he abided by Force to Syrian policies, he remained untamable, in a sense that he was the Saudi man in specific and US in general. He faced a challenge from Walid bin Talal to be a Lebanese Prime Minister (due inheritting the citizenship as the grandson of the historical figure el-Solh), and was always cornered. When Emil Lahoud was elected, el-Harriri had to face two in the upper "Trioka", the President and the Chairman of the Parlaiment. Emil Lahoud had his allies who already dominated regions, such as Michel el Murr. El-Murr replaced Bshara el Merhej (who also was a pro-Syrian) as a minister of interior, and eventually his son inherited the throne in the ministry. His daughter was already the chairman of municapilities in upper el Matn in Mount Lebanon, and there was no stopping him. Ironically the only person to threaten him was his own brother, who was supported by all anti-Syrian parties and figures such as Boutros Harb and Nassib Lahoud. Gabriel el-Murr went head to head with his brother's daughter in 2002, and defeated her. In the streets of Christian Beirut, the flags of anti-Syrian Communists, Lebanese Forces, and Aoun pictures gathered togather which was strange to see the Hammer and Sickle, next to it is a picture of the Omega (sign of the FPM which resembled resistance) and the chipped cross representing the Lebanese forces. Later, Gabriel el Murr was framed by his brother and his TV station "el-Murr TV" was closed due to "corruption." This occured before officially Gabriel el-Murr became an MP, and did not attain his diplomatic immunity. The Pro-Syrian parties celebrated that their is no corruption in the government, while anti-Syrian argued that this was corruption itself for challenging Syria. In this crisis, Junblatt nominated a neutral figure and ended up winning the chair in defect. In the end, over 500 employees were thrown to the street without any means of compensation due to politics.

A unique case appeared and was quickly forgotten and covered was the most hated "war" lord in Lebanon, ex-MP Elie Hobaika. He recieved full military training in Israel when he was one Bashir Gemayel's two most loyal followers. He was head of the Lebanese Forces special unit, and most hateful of anyone non-Christian. Afterwards he switched sides when Samir Jaajaa became the head of the Lebanese Forces, and Syria welcomed the man who in person shot and engineered the massacre of the Sabra and Shatila camps where over 3000 women, eldars, and children were shot cold blooded manner. Then supported by Syria, he led an offensive against Jaajaa during the war on the Christian stronghold or Capital "Ashrafieh" which weakened the Lebanese Forces and paved way for the Syrians to enter in an easier fashion. He was supposed to testify against against Ariel Sharon as being an accomplice in the Belgium Tribunal international court and was assasinated. Nobody knew who killed him. It could have been the reminants of the Palestinian militias seeking revenge, it could have been the Christians, it could have been even the Israelis to protect their prime minister and war Hero Ariel Sharon, or it could have been the Pro-Syrians, or the Syrian intelligence themselves, nobody knew and the case was dropped as he already was no longer an MP.

The build up

While the Sunni Sect remained neutral and hence allowed the Syrian formula of a "Zionist Christian" versus "Resistance Formula" be applied, Harriri had his own battlefrints whenever he had the chance to integrate Lebanon into the WTO he had to undergo a fight. He had to face all the Pro-Syrian forces and that included Walid Junblatt in his Syrian mood swing that lasted for a while without switching. Towards the June of 2004, he faced a huge wave of mass building on the behalf of the Pro-Syrian parties undergoing the demonstration of "Fighting Starvation" or "Living away from Money". The logos raised clearly demanded the need of the government should make life better away from Taxes.

The Minister, then, of Finance, Seniora was labeled "Super Tax Man" as it was his plan to integrate the VAT and increase it, to increase taxes, and integrate the 5% tax on intrest rate. None used to object since all were having piece of the share. For example, when the mobile phones were first privatized, all argued on each other to grab a juicy piece of the cake. This of course included the Future movement themselves. Dwelling a bit deeper, on the "Bread demonstration which left 6 people dead as clashes between the Army and demonstrators in Hayy el Soullom clashed. Funnier thing is the case of having pro-Syrian ministers demonstrating against their own government, and in the end of the day, they were the majority in the cabinet.

Another case that 9/11 reflected negatively and catastrophic on the Proletariat was the process of United States requesting suspected "Terrorist" bank accounts from countries. Since Lebanon had Hamas in Lebanon, and Lebanon was the first Arab country to follow the Bank Secrecy procedure, Lebanon was requested to deliver 50 accounts, and ended up 2 years later with over 200 bank accounts denabded from the US and around 100 from Europe. This situation reflected badly and sectarianism build-up started to form against the Sunnis since they voted for el-Harriri's entire list and won 18/18 in 2000. The governor of the central bank Riyad Salameh recieved a memo to display the accounts and a huge scandal took place on Lebanon. al-Harriri was accused of treason and serving US interests, because Hamas meant resistance against Israeli occupation of Palestine. Political escalation increased specially from ex-Prime Minister Salim el Huss, President Emil Lahoud, and Chairman Nabih Berri. Those trio spearheaded the offensive on el-Harriri, even though he attempted to explain that he does not know how the memo arrived there. Nevertheless, the accounts issue became an excuse to attack the "Saudi" man.

As elections of 2005 approached, new alliances started to take place, and a new balance of power occured.

The Pre Elections Clash

It was said that those with the warriors had the bargaining cards. This applied in the Civil War as in previous chapters mentioned that if the Sect leaders loved each other, so would the people. As attempts to generate third party figures during the war, all attempts ended up in failure. This is the same case with Post-War, because in the end it was the Sect Leaders who did the balance of power on the Lebanese scale.

At first, an attempt to rebuild a new left-wing movement called the "Democractic Leftist Movement" , it ended as a last minute patch work for Elias Attallah to run for elections. They currently also defend all right-wing ideologies and the sectarian line-up. I think my previous posts had plenty of analysis on them. They ended up as the Party they were supposed to face, the degenerated Lebanese Communist Party.

Forming the Bristol Conference series, which meant the alliance of all anti-Syrian figures, it was attended by FPM, Lebanese Forces, DLM, Phalangist figures, and the two surprises were al-Harriri and Walid Junblatt. The two switching sides meant a disastrous result for the Syrians. Junblatt's switch and Harriri going public with his opposition of Syria stimulated the PSP members to go back to the initial block they were supposed to be part of. In any case, at first people were distrustful of Junblatt's switch, but as he demanded the release of Samir Jaajaa from Prison and return of Syria's arch-nemisis General Aoun, the Syrians returned to calculate things. El-Harriri was supposed to be the financial consultant and supplier to the Anti-Syrians while Junblatt and the Christian allied forces brought the man - power to do so. The Democractic Left ended up, like any weak party, a bandwagoner to the stronger part, and that was Junblatt.

The media of opposing Syria was spearheaded by two figures, both with strong connections to the French, and they both belonged to the same Newspaper and these two were actualy Jubran Tueini and DLM's journalist star Samir Qassir. The leftists were supposed to be running with Junblat in his "Durzistan" empire, while the opposition line up was critical to shoot down Syrian power. Ek-Harriri's men were harrassed as even though the Sunni Street was neutral, they were refered to as "Sunnis" Street going to the anti-Resistance line. The PSP were having a blast out of it, because for long years they were supporting something they couldn't digest, which is Syria, and go into alliance with their arch-enemies the Syrian Social Nationalists and Talal Irslain who became appointed Minister of State.

The escalated situation occured and Syria pushed its unstable allies into opposition when they forced the re-newal of Emil Lahoud's mandate for another three years despite anti-Syrian opposition. Junblatt and el-Harriri had enough of being Syrian muppets, specially after Lahoud by force was re-elected as President, clearly by Syrian pressure. Syria took the risk, but they wanted to send a clear message to France and the United States that Lebanon is no one but their's. The re-election of Lahoud took place after UN resolution 1559 occured. The UN resolution demanded that:

1) Unconditional withdrawal of Syria
2) Disarmed of all non-militia groups, which targeted in specific the resistance heroes Hezbollah.

Hence, Lahoud by force was re-elected for another 3 years, even though the Lebanese Constitution does not allow the renewal of such an act, and Prime Minister Harriri and his block, as well as Junblatt's ministers resigned, and the government fell.

Perhaps the Karamis since the 1990s had the worse luck when it came to governments, because their family members when being Prime Ministers were either assasinated or kicked out during huge wave of demonstrations. Omar Karami, a feudal Sunni figure was elected who supposedly dominated the Sunni Street in the second largest city after Beirut, which is Tripoli. The void of el-Harriri resigning caused a major void, and the Pro-Syrians attempted to valance in the vabinet by getting the largest elite powers into the government. Such figures included Skaff, who is the top merchant in the Land business, the decendant of el-Solh with all her family fortunes, and plenty others. The Karami government will be remembered for three things:

1) The government that resigned in the face of political turmoil
2) The government that witnessed the assasination of Rafiq el Harriri
3) The First government to finally have women in its cabinet and had two.

No matter what happened, the bi-polarity was extensive as Hezbollah focused on Shebaa farms and away from the swamp of Lebanese politics. Politically, the balance of power was restored, but on the ground, Hezbollah's mass support of over one million reflected its strength, specially that they intended to paticipate in the "One Million Man" demonstration but didn't their allies horded around 600,000 in support of Syria. Funnier thing is to see AMAL members raising banners that they are against Terrorism, and it was they who butchered most during the war the by-standers. It was also reported that partially small amounts of Syrian and Palestinians demonstrated. The number was huge, and that included of a symbolic participation of Hezbollah.

In the end, a new shock will occur that will shake Lebanese politics from its very foundation, something that would have a much more effect than the assasination of Elie Hobaika, that till now people would be surprised and find it hard to grasp, including myself, not out of love, but out of the suddenly occured event. I always opposed Harriri's horrific taxations that went to the pockets of the elites. This was of course, the assasination of el Harriri.

Harriri's Assasination: The Bi-Polarity and Accusations

There was an assasination attempt on Marwan Hmaidi, after the election of the President, and people said it was either a single going attempt to deliver a message to Junblatt to behave whenever he attacked Syria and its Second Bureau or it was the first of a whole set of series of assasinations. Whatever the case, it pushed Junblatt and Harriri even closer, and pushed both even further towards the opposition. While all the Bristol line up were attacking al-Assad, the scandals of money laundering were exploding in the Lebanese media. specially there was a link between Bank el Madina and Syrian officials, or what used to be called "Governers" such as Rustom Ghazali and Ghazi Kenaan. The owner of el-Meddina bank, Miss Kolailat, disappeared only later to be discovered inside Egypt.

In February, el-Harriri was assasinated, along with later dying from his wounds, Minister Bassil Fleihan, in a huge explosion that left 11 people dead. I do not need to describe the details as the whole world watched with stunned eyes. Actually my mother was only 200 meters away from the explosion and survived the falling glass.

The anti-Syrians directly accused Syria for assasinating the spearhead of the newly founded opposition, including the Free Patriotic Movement. The other side, after couple of days, accused Israel to attempt to abolish stability and drag Lebanon to chaos. Junblatt stayed with the Harriris for 6 days non-stop. All elites wanted to capitalize on the issue. The pro-Syrians accused it was Israel (after three days President Lahoud decides to speak and send condolences) while the location of el-Harriri became a holy shrine to be visited by all parties.

The assasination triggered the dormant Sunni Street as their representative was killed, and for the first time they hit the streets in masses of angry waves. Demonstrations occured and as the streets of Ras Beirut and Sunni dominated locations were full of Sunnis in the same day, all store and dinners closed out of fear to see their stores smashed down due to the angry wave. The government announced three day mourn and no store should open out of respect to the "father of modern beirut". People, who never loved the Syrians but remained dormant or were neutral were pushed towards the opposition block and participated in the demonstrations against Syria. The Syrian forces remained silent to avoid clashes that would trigger a chain reaction whose end result is another Lebanese civil war. This was probably the smartest move played by Nasrallah to avoid the clashes. It was till later stages that he expressed his accusation to Israel.

Whether or not, who did it, the timing was perfect. If it were the Syrians, then their calculations were to kill the strongest financial power and send a message to the opposition to "behave". If it were the Israelis, well they successfully triggered the operation of a life time after 9/11, whereby they killed al-Harriri and framed Syria for it. Till now, all fingers point to Syria, but there is no evidence to point out the murderer. The fingers remained pointing because Syria remained intervening and wanted to eliminate politically its opposing elites inside Lebanon. The following murders would direct the finger ore towards Syria.

International pressure, specially from France, who attended the Harriri funeral and spent a day with his friend's family, and the United States who needed any excuse to bombard Syria as the alliance between Syria and Iran increased. Besides, both countries supported Hezbollah and assisted in arming it. In the end, everyone claimed they will find the murderer of el-Harriri and seek revenge. Pro-Syrians did a series of speech deliveries by spokesmen towards Israel, while the anti-Syrians did the same, but towards Syria. This included the Son and sister of Rafiq el Harriri.

As a gathering was supposed to occur, three weeks later, where the MPs should meet, the Army was given an order to stop the demonstators of anti-Syria to meet. The pro-Syrians were leading a tiny demonstration as well headed by person without any followers: Nasser Andeel. The demonstrators of anti-Syria broke through the barricade and reached Martyre's square, and remained under-siege. The others were surrounded, and the first time in ages the Lebanese channels remained open 24/7. This followed a demonstration that had the Sunnis, Christians, and Druz in it. This reflected the Sectarian built-up: three sects against the Shiites and allies from different sects.

Prior to the ousting of the government of Karami, series of demonstrations were staged by the leaders of the three sects, whose theme is the withdrawal of Syrian troops and the unity of the Christians and Muslims. From the Harriri's side, no one knew who will be the political heir to Rafiq el Harriri, except a tiny difference, that this heir will be the leader of the majority of the Sunni who are on the move and demonstrate on the streets. The bulk of the movements involved: The PSP, the FPM, the LF, and the Future. Few tinier groups were bandwagoning in the hope of getting a a chair in the parlaiment, such as the Democractic Leftist Movement. This coalition also involved the political figures without any mass movements, such as Botros Harb, Nassib Lahoud, Nayla Mo'awad (well she got partial mass support in the North), Samir Franjieh, and so on.

The goal of the bristol coalition was divided into five things:

1- Fight to allow the date of the elections remain the same dates without any delay so that the Bristol block would capitalize on the assasination of Harriri
2- The withdrawal of the Syrian Army from Lebanon as soon as possible to gurantee a 100% democractic elections without any Syrian influence
3- Certain army officials be arrested
4- To get the international court involved in the assasination of Rafiq el Harriri
5- This is added on the eve of ousting the Karami government: inviting Hezbollah to join the block for national unity

It is important to note that Harriri prior to the assasination was cursed by plenty of people, after his death, plenty regarded him a Saint on Earth. A lot used to curse him for his taxation system, now he is the father of Lebanon to them.

The Karami Government goes bye-bye

The Karami government kept promoting the unique ties between Lebanon and Syria. The official spokesmen for the Pro-Syrians were outside the cabinet were figures also without parties, while the parties remained silent. People like Nasser Andeel expressed their attitudes with utmost offence on the Bristol line-up while promoting the threat of Israel against Lebanon. This theme rotates that Israel would benefit if Syria and Lebanon's ties are broken. Another spokesman was Suleiman Frangieh, he was the minister of Interior to replace Elias el-Murr (son of the Pro Michel Murr who dominates the Upper Matn), which pushed Elias to the Bristol line - up as well. Suleiman Frangieh was the head of an ex-Militia known as the Marada. A Christian militia back during the war, and his arch-enemy is Samir Frangieh, because Sulieman's grandfather ousted Samir's family from its traditional power and dominated in a bloody way in the Zgharta region (extensive Christian). While the logos of Shebaa were used extensively, accusations were directed by the street masses that Pro-Syrians are Syrian Agents, while Anti-Syrians were pro-USA (at first due to the impact of Rafiq Harriri's death and later as Pro-Zionists).

During the first days, the Sunni street was on the move. Walid Junblatt remained with the Harriri's, and Bush demanded the full implementation of UN resolution 1559. The Bristol line-up kept demanding the full implementation of the Ta'ef Accord. After three days of the assasination, the Pro-Syrian President Lahoud finally spoke in "mourn" about Rafiq Harriri. The international arena moved in favor of the Bristol line-up and the Bristol line-up gained more confidence itself.

After the funeral of Rafiq Harriri, the political heir and the new head of the block was not as expected, Baha'a Harriri, rather it was his younger brother: Sa'ad Harriri. On the political arena for the Harriris, it was Rafiq's sister Bahyia on the offensive. She decided to wear a veil to mourn her brother, and the logos: "The father of Beirut" or "Builder of Beirut" were raised in reference to Rafiq' Harriri's Down Town Project. Ordinary non-political citizens were pushed in support of the Future movement. The reasons it achieved its popularity are several:

1- For starters, Harriri broke away "bravely" from the Syrians and ended up paying for his price.
2- He became a martyr for freedom
3- He was not a war-lord during the civil war so he got plenty of sympathy from normal citizens
4- His business logo as "New Modern Lebanon" was promoted extensively

The Bristol line-up wanted to capitalize on this massive storm as soon as possible and hoped it would reflect on the elections, of which they refuted to postpone. Gradually, the pro-Syrians started their counter-offensive and attacked Israel for the assasination.

After several weeks, the government finally met with the members of the Parlaiment. One night before, the Anti-Syrians decided announced to go down to Martyr's square (soon to become called "Freedom Square") and demonstrate. The Pro-Syrians as always tended to counter every demonstration with a demonstration of their own. This time, the spear head was supposed to be the Nasserite MP Nasser Andeel. Yet the army formulated a blockade and successfully blocked the Pro-Syrian demonstration. The Anti-Syrian demonstrators partially broke into the Martyr's Square and were locked inside. Through out the evening, more and more demonstrators were encouraged and by morning, new demonstrators brought flowers with them and gave them to the army. The concept of the flowers is to pay respect to the only recognized military force in Lebanon, which was the army, and to enforce its importance against Syria. The army baffled with what ought to be done, recieved "orders" to let the demonstrators in.

As the members of the Parlaiment entered the Parlaimentary building, non-MP figures spoke to the demonstrators as they were celebrating Freedom. Inside the meeting, a new battle was waged. The newly aligned Anti-Syrian coalition attacked the Karami government as Syrian agents, while the Prime Minister attempted to direct the discussion towards Israel and this is what the United States wants. The ultimate spearhead, as silence struck the room was the sister of the late Rafiq el-Harriri, as she was given the floor to speak. Her offensive was directed towards the Syrians, and blamed the government for not protecting her brother. Her speech was stunning as anger was flaming from her eyes. After several heated discussions, the afternoon break was given, and the Anti-Syrians coalition MPs joined the demonstrators. When the evening session started, Karami, as Prime Minister, had the floor. He began to remind people how his family gave Martyrs for Lebanon, and declared his resignation. His speech was in specific directed to Bahyia Harriri, and the Bristol Line Up MPs started clapping or raise in surprise their fingers in a V form. The Head of the Parlaiment, Nabih Berri was surprised (still not sure about that part) and said to the Prime Minister: "You can't take such a decision, you should have consulted me." The anti-Syrians MPs returned to the Martyrs' Square (which is few minutes away walking) and decided to celebrate with their supporters (and also capitalize on the matter as potential candidates running for the newly coming elections needed to be identified).

To say the truth, in several anti-Syrian demonstrations, I had to be beaten by Pro-Syrian supporters or military intelligence. This was my first demonstration participation that ousted out a Pro-Syrian government. In the demonstration, when Karami announced his resignation, we all hailed victory. I yelled: "Hasta La Victoria Siempre." The reason of my participation was to give "national unity" a chance, even though I got carried away that day, but sadly the Sectarian line-up was there. Plenty of leftists participated in this demonstration, and in the end of it, two additional invitations were added:

1) One invitation was directed to the Syrian people to rebel and get rid of their government.
2) Another directed to Hezbollah to join the national unity for a stronger Lebanon

The resignation itself of Karami would be controversial. The ones extremely involved with the Bristol line-up believed that it was their demonstration that overthrew the Karami government. Others thought it was an act on a stage to created chaos and political vacuum. Nevertheless, that day was a memorable day, the first time anti-Syrians overcome a Pro-Syrian government. February was indeed one of the most heated months in Lebanon, and March would be much more heated, as more than 60% of the Lebanese population would hit the streets in less than a week.

The Birth of 8th and 14th of March (2005): The Bi-Polarity

The Rise of 8th of March

While logos Independance 05 were beginning to be popular. The Pro-Syrians were rather weak or kept a low profile in their solidarity for Syria. Syria's President, Bashar el-Assad, announced a pull-out plan that would include few stages. Junblat and Fatfat (Future member) insisted loudly that the pull-out should be complete before the elections in the summer.

Eventually the Pro-Syrians will do the balance. On March 7th, Hezbollah's Hassan Nasrallah for the first time ever would use his own muscle to reflect the actual size of his audience. Nasrallah declared that the next day would be a farewell demonstration on order to thank Syria's contributions to Lebanon. No one can doubt the effect of Nasrallah on his audience as over a million descended to Riyad el Solh square (also few minutes away from Martyr's Square) the very next day.

The Bristol Line-Up watched in fear as Nasrallah gathered a million alone, excluding the participation of other Pro-Syrian parties. Plenty of pro-Syrian figures spoke about resistence and the full liberation of Lebanon, which will not be complete till Sheba'a farms are free. The only flags that were permitted to be raised were the Lebanese flags. This is the first time a Pro-Syrian demonstration without a Syrian Flag in it. The awaited star of the event was Nasrallah. When he stood at the balcony, everyone was silent as if he was the awaited Messiah. Whether the Christian Party of the ever-vulgar Suleiman Frangieh's Marada or the secular Syrian Social Nationalist Party, or the weak Durzi leader Irslain, all hailed equally to Nasrallah as he brought balance to the Pro-Syrian block on the national scale.

Nasrallah spoke but unlike what is expected he could have caused Lebanon to head towards a civil war with his talk as his audience were repressed for the first time for weeks and weeks... something they were not used to. He spoke on resistance in general and how his party liberated the South. Eventually, he thanked the Syrians for their contributions in Lebanon, and stresssed on the era of the Israeli 1982 invasion on how the Syrian Army gave martyrs for the security of Lebanon (although that can be contradicted in terms of Syrian motives from an academic and Political point of view). He then he formulated a critique on the Bristol Line Up by telling them that the Syrian and Lebanese relations should be damaged in the face of a Zionist enemy who is still massacring the Palestinians in a most brutal sense.

The analysis of the overall demonstration was Nasrallah wanted to display his real strength in Lebanon. The fact that in less than 24 hours, he gathered over 1 million supporter displayed his actual size. The second point to stress on that he did not allow nothing but Lebanese flags to be raised, indicating to the Bristol-Line Up that negotiations can be available if a better deal was offered. Third, he wanted to send a message to the Bristol Line Up that they are not really a dominating sweeping majority in terms of mass support. The Anti-Karami demonstration was rather very small compared to his over 1 million (a quarter of the Lebanese population) supporters. Even though some Syrians and Palestinians were spoted in the demonstration in solidarity to Nasrallah, the bulk remained Lebanese. From here afterwards, the Pro-Syrians would be labeled as 8th of March coalition.

When the Bristol Line-Up saw what is going on, fear struck the Sectarian parties. The Sunni in specific were most terrified of the 8th March demonstration. The Sunni street is new to street activism, and during the war they never really had a militia. The only Sunni militia during the war were the Nasserite Mourabitoun, who didn't reflect the Sunni Street. The Sunnis since 1920, ever since New Lebanon was created, dominated the political arena from the Islamic side while the Shiites remained disorganized and scattered. They did want to lose their power, or the remainder of their power to the Shiite leaders, in specific Nasrallah and Berri. When Bahyia Harriri called few days later for a demonstration on the 14th of March, it was clearly an invitation to the Sunni Street to retaliate on the biggest Sect in Lebanon, the Shiites. The Sunnis, in general, embodied the Harriris as the representatives of the Sunna. Bahyia el Harriri was to speak on their behalf as Saad el Harriri did not fully inherit his role.

The two Christian Parties: the Lebanese Forces and The Free Patriotic Movement feared that the International community would believe that the Anti-Syrians are really a minority in Lebanon, and would let Lebanon whither away. They wanted Jaajaa out of prison and the return from the 5 stars hotel in Paris, the exiled General Aoun. They worried that if the Syrians remain, they will remain to be oppressed and there is no chance to bring forth their glories back best case, or have a shot of being in the Parlaiment in a worse case.

The Durzi leader Walid Junblatt had enough of political swings. He is more determined than ever that he does not want a dictator above his head telling him how to manage his Durzi kingdom. He knew Talal Irslain, nor his Syrian Social Nationalist Party, in his area, are no match over his command over the loyalty of the Durzi supporters. He knew that his followers were fed up of swallowing Syrian speeches, and he wanted to emerge as the ultimate spearhead for the Bristol Line-Up. He knew that his forces have to fully participate in the situation as the whole world kept close eye on the 8th of March demonstration.

I remember recieving an SMS on my mobile telling me: "1.5 million demonstrated for Syria, 2.5 million still oppose it." The number is too general and not detailed as there was no mass referendum to see exactly who supported what inside Lebanon. Such referendums were not made as officials feared a sectarian war or chaos would break, specially the concept that the Shiites are expected to be over 55%, and they are fully commanded either by Nasrallah or Berri.
A counter demonstration is needed to balance against the 8th of March demonstration.

The Birth of the 14th of March block

The situation could not have been better for the soon to be the 14th of March block. The assasination of Harriri and the sudden come back of the Pro-Syrians stimulated most of the regular citizens that opposed Syrian hegemony over Lebanon. The bulk was a reaction to the 8th of March. Plenty participated that day for different reasons:

1- Call by Bahyia Harriri, the sister of the late Rafiq Harriri
2- Sectarian Reaction against the Shiite block and their allies
3- Prove to the world that the 8th of March are not the dominant ones and majority in Lebanon
4- Hopes and Dreams for a better future and better economy

The number that went down was not accurate. Numbers ranged from 1.8 million to 2.5 million participant. I was there as well. I went down walking from Bliss St. to Down Town, up to the Martyr's Statue. The banners raised were anti-Syrian, the slogans were against the Syrian and Lebenese President, as well as against the presence of the Syrian army and their intelligence in Lebanon. Sadly racist logos were also raised against Syrian workers. The demonstration gathered more that what the organizers anticipated. The Lebanese Flag was not the only one as party flags were also raised. The opposition leaders spoke about Syrian hegemony, and the need for freedom. Big screens and sound systems were available. The ones in the front were able to listen, other than that, people kept walking from one area to another. It was very difficult to do a human ladder, every time a hand breaks from the ladder, the person is automatically lost due to the crowd. When someone asks: where did X or Y disappear, another replies: "Martyred!" in a comedy way.

While everyone of the anti-Syrians whether regular people or politically affiliated people were happy, not many speeches were heard. We made it to the Statue of the Martyrs, where my aunt tripped and would be held by the soon to be assasinated Jubran Touieny. As we made it out because we couldn't stand the heat, and went back walking, along with few comrades, to my place. I was just in time to hear the star of the event, MP Bahyia Harriri.

Her speech again was charismatic, even though Ghazi Areedi speaks remarkably well, but probably due to her relation with Rafiq Harriri and the anger she has made her an effective speech deliverer. I consider this speech very important because it reflected what the Bristol line-up is really about: a Sectarian reactionary line-up assembled to face a Sectarian Syrian bourgeoisie dominated group from the other side. The secular forces were just bandwagoning with the two blocks. In any case, Bahyia focused on the following points: When she attacked the assasins of her brother and spoke of national unity, she was hailed; whever she invited Hezbollah to join the national unity, she recieved plenty of boos from the FPM and LF. In any case her goal was avoiding the path of a civil war between three sects verus the biggest of all.

The funniest part of the whole 8th-14th March demonstrations were the logo wars. For example, a banner was raised in the Anti-Karami demonstrations which said: "Faja'nakon Moo?" (Translation means: in Syrian Accent: We surprised you no?) This was a joke about the people of Homs in Syria which goes by: "A Homsi was taking a walk when he stepped by mistake on a frog. He sees its squashed face and says: 'I surprised you no?'" This with time including the whole Syrians in Lebanon, and tended to be used plenty of times when an expected intelligence Syrian is there, people would whisper "Faja'tak moo?" (Syrian Accent translation: I surprised you no?" When Nasrallah gathered his supporters in 8th of March, a banner was raised: "La'a, ma faja'toona mo" (Translation: No you didn't surprise us - in Syrian accent). On 14th of March, the banner in retaliation was raised: "Mbala, faja'nakon moo?" (Translation of Syrian Accent sentence: Yes, we did surprise you! No?)

In another logo war, a different hilarious wars were swinging. There was a picture during the anti-Karami demonstration was taken of a lady (a madame) with all her jewelry demonstrating while her foreign worker maid is carrying a banner written on it: "Syria Out". Now the picture has various dimensions to the situation. Traditionally, the "Madame" tends to refer to the Christian elite women of Ashrafieh area who rely on their maids for everything. The term "Madame" is also used by the maids to address their employers. So the term tends to be racist and Sectarian. The photo attained by 8th of March block was very popular of the "Madame" while her maid was carrying the "Syria Out" banner. It was very popular as a chain email, and on 8th of March a banner was spotted saying: "Now does really Madame want Syria out?" On the 14th of March, the retaliation was on a banner: "Didn't You Hear! Madame did say Syria Out!". These two scenarios were just very few of the huge popular clashes between the two reactionary camps.

From that day forth, Lebanon became divided as "14th of March" and "8th of March". The 14th of March focused 100% on condemning Syria for its assasination of Rafiq el Harriri while the 8th of March condemned Israel for its previous attoricities and brutality towards the Palestinians. The ex-PM Salim el Hoss opened the "The Third Way" block, but on the ground it was Pro-Syrian. The ones who did step aside against both camps and denounced them as reactionary, they were denounced by both at the same time as US/Zionist agents from one side, and Syrian agents from the other.


Lebanon, Israel, and Class Struggle (Chapter 1: Background of the Bourgoisie) link
Lebanon, Israel, and Class Struggle (Chapter 2: Dwelling on the evolution of Societies) link
Lebanon, Israel, and Class Struggle (Chapter 3, Post Lebanese War Class Struggle and Pre- 9/11) link

Thursday, August 24, 2006

Lebanon, Israel, and Class Struggle (Chapter 3, Post Lebanese War Class Struggle and Pre- 9/11)

In this section after shedding some light on the struggles of the bourgeoisie on the Proletariat in Israel and Lebanon. This chapter will focus on Class Struggle inside Lebanon after the Taef Accord.

The end of the Civil War: Truimph of Syria & United States

As the Lebanese Civil War came to an end, a new change on the bourgeoisie arena took place. A new form of power emerged. Syria adopted the Taef accord, and after the turmoil of assasinating President Rene Moua'wad, the political parties that are pro-Syrian dominated. On the international arena, United States sold Lebanon to Syria in return Syria supports the United States against Saddam Hussein's Iraq. The last supporter of Saddam Hussein, who was General Aoun, was exiled to France to live in a five star hotel.

The Taef accord imposed that all parties should lay down their arms. Syria adjusted the agreement informally to manipulate weaponry hegemony to a single party: Hezbollah. Such monopoly was in the name of resistance. Hezbollah themselves were surprised to that decision and were mistrustful in the beginning as Syria twice intervined to save AMAL movement in its clashes against Hezbollah.

Class Struggle in the Post War

The anti-Syrian forces were limited to two major christian parties: The Lebanese Forces and the Free Patriotic Movement. Syria already involved itself even to the details of the election of party members. The Lebanese Communist Party (1988), the Syrian Social Nationalist Party (1984), the Phalangists (Post 1990), and few others all suffered from interventions in their party elections.

The war witnessed the distengration of the secular forces, and mainly the Lebanese Communist Party (and other Communist Factions), and the SSNP. The formula was to end the presence of the anti-Syrian forces in Lebanon, while indirectly Lebanon undergoes "Free" elections which technically witnessed extensive Syrian extortion and blackmail. The plan was to enforce the Sectarian divide in order to isolate the Maronites traditional parties. The Phalangists for example had a Pro-Syrian leader called Mounir el Hajj, while the leader of the Lebanese Forces was the only leader to be punished for war crimes, after being framed, into prison. General Aoun was already in France while succeeded to establish the Free Patriotic Movement to oppose Syria. No matter how much the FPM tried to promote itself as a secular movement, it remained run by a one man show called Aoun, and as a movement it remained Christian in essence, just as the Progressive Socialist Party was supposed to be Socialist but remained a Druzi sect party in the core.

The plan is to keep the proletariat isolated according to Sects, and with weaponry monopolized by the ever growing Party Hezbollah, the Syrians invented a new formula to control the masses, other than playing on the fear factor that each sect would be eaten alive by the other unless they support their traditional leaders. The formula focused as follows:

1) To be anti-Syrian means to oppose resistance against Israel and the Arab Cause, which meant directly treason and indirectly a fanatic Christian. This equation was based on the fact that Syria supported Hezbollah extensively, while Hezbollah did indeed not direct its weaponry against any Lebanese civilian. Sadly Hezbollah became the not only the balancer of power, but Syria's primary path to vanquish most of opposition to take any real or effective actions against opposing Syria.

2) To be Pro-Syrian means to be pro-resistance, which means anti-Israel directly and a good Muslim or a good friend of the muslims unofficially.

Through this formula, the Proletariat were more and more divided, and class awareness took huge steps away from actualization. The Communist Party adopted the slogan of resistance and support of the resistance, although historically it was the Lebanese Communist Party and the Order for Communist Work initiated the "Resistance Front" when West Beirut* fell for 6 days against Israel.

The Sunni leadership became officially represented with Rafiq Harriri who later established a movement after his private TV station Future Television. The formula was supposed to be as follows in the trio top executive cabinet:

1) A Neutral Figure: That person was President Elias Harawi, who really didn't have any real ground forces.

2) A Pro-Syrian Figure: That figure was Head of the Parlaiment Nabih Berri**, who had allegiance to Syria since 1984
3) A Pro-Western Figure: That was supposed to be the Prime Minister Rafiq el-Harriri, who used to attend negotiations outside Lebanon with the Saudi delegations and had strong ties with United States and France as well. His plan was integrating Lebanon within the World Trade Organization.

The chairs of the Parlaiment were equality distributed 50% Christian and 50% Muslim according to the Taef accord. This led the Muslims to feel treated unjust, since they became the majority, specially through the Shiite Sect. The Shiites were mostly made of the Lower Class with no social welfare coverage whatsoever. As the majority coming from a lower class rural areas with minimum infrastructure (such as doctors, roads, electricity, schools,...etc) birth rate was high relatively to the other Sects. While an average of four to 8 children per family in general existed, the Sunni and other Sects had an average of 2 to 4 mostly.

The balance of power was broken, Syria's tactic to keep the Proletariat divided worked. No Sect would love or accept the other unless the Sect leader welcomed the other in the house and proclaimed officially there is an alliance.

The Shiites upper and lower classes were represented by AMAL and Hezbollah respectively. AMAL was involved in the political game and had ministers while Hezbollah were satisfied with the Parlaiment members, and focused on Israel and building the infrastructure of the South.

The Sunnites remained neutral. The leaders were business men and never focused on details of the competition between the anti-Syrian forces and the Pro. Harriri and his business machinary already been an empire, while the Sunni masses never been involved. Syria had the "Ahhbash" (extreme Sunni fanatics) and the dissolved Morabitoun (a small Sunni militia during the civil war) to be check point on the Future movement. Any time Harriri did not please Syria, those would be ready to demonstrate. Even though the traditional Sunni leaders such as Karami had some regional power, but it was simply limited to Tripoly.

The Druze were the biggest dilemna in the Post-War. The person who gathered most popularity was the son of Kamal Junblatt, Walid Junblatt. During the war, Walid sided with Syria even though it was the Syrians who assasinated his father after his father was politically isolated in Lebanon and attempted to establish contacts with Syrian Opposition against the Baathi regime. Walid Junblatt survived two assasination attempts, of which the first he blamed Amin Gemayel and sided with the Syrians during the war. In the post-war era, Walid Junblatt severely attacked the Syrians and kept accusing him as wanting to establish a "2nd Bureau Regime" in Lebanon. He did the famous reconciliation afterwards in Mt. Lebanon when he welcomed Patriarch Sfair in his homeland while prior to that the relations were tense as the Lebanese Forces and The Progressive Socialist Party clashed in the "Mountain War" as the Israelis were pulling out of that area. Plenty of Christian and Druze Proletariat were brutally killed in that clash.

After the Operation of Grapes of Wrath in 1996, Junblatt's position kept remaining vague. Sometimes he would support the Syrians and sometimes he would attack them. Afterwards, he fully adopted the Syrian speech that national unity is needed to face Israel. Sadly, the Druze followers typically followed their leader. Yet, Junblatt was not the only Durzi leader. A weaker Durzi feudal "prince" was present to rival Junblatt. The rivalry has been for centuries, but after the rise of Kamal Junblatt, the Junblatts dominated the majority of the Druze. Syria tried to Istablish this prince, called Talal Irslain whose family played a major role in the 1943 "independance", as a checkpoint on Junblatt. No matter, his popularity was not even close to Junblatt's. Even in the new millenium, Syria tried to put Irslain as a Minister of State and give him some political value, but without any success. Irslain was one of many miscalculated blunders that Syria did on the political level. Hence on a Proletariat level, Druze were divided mainly in allegiance to Walid Junblatt, afterwards few to Talal Irslain, while the secular Druze were in distributed between Communists and Syrian Nationalists. The Communists in that Section supported Walid Junblatt as the ex-strong Communist Party broke down to plenty of factions.

The Christians tried to unify their fronts and did the "Qornit Shahwan" where all Christian figures opposing Syria gathered there in this union. It had with it Walid Junblatt also, but withdrew his men after he switched allegiance to Syria for the next couple of years. That had some success as the Lebanese Forces and Free Patriotic Movement participated extensively on it, along with Christian Clerks, and secular forces such as Nassib Lahoud and Boutros Harb. Later, Aoun would withdraw his own people from it. Later Aoun's movement would withdraw away from it.

The social life was totally suffocating to the Proletariat. At one hand, bureaucratic corruption followed as pro-Syrian parties occupied public sector jobs. Nabih Berri was the most famous of all in bringing his boys jobs at public expense. Michel el Murr (a Pro-Syrian Figure) built an empire in Matn area by recruiting his own boys to the public sector and secure more votes that way.

Whenever a demonstration occured and was organized by Pro-Syrian parties, maximum media coverage occured while at the same time terror and fear followed the leftists and Christian forces when they organized demonstrations against Syria, censorship, and corruption. Funny thing that plenty of the Anti-Syrian figures were part of the corruption one way or another. Activists' pictures were taken and they were traced. The intelligence, whether Syrian or Lebanese, would threaten them to remain calm, scare their families, or they would been the demonstrators directly. The Pro-Syrian parties enjoyed that scene since they feel they have been there and view themselves as the majority.

Nevertheless, Syria depended extensively on every single dimension. They attempted to censor as much as possible the media. Annahar, Saffir, and Daily Star faced several censorships. The Pro-Syrian youth were bluffed that the Public Sector file and Syrian Intervention topic should not be tackled till the Israeli invasion was cleared. Different scandals occured, and the Harriri block recieved a share of those scandals whenever the Syrians want to tighten the leech on the non-100% loyalists. The re-writing of history occured as Pro-Syrian Phalangist leaders (forced) recieved Baathi leaders and others in an attempt to isolate the Maronites.

In the meantime, the Anti-Syrian forces became more and more racist towards the Syrians. They failed to distinguish between Syrian elites and people. The Syrian workers already were everywhere in Lebanon doing blue collar work mostly whether in the villages or the city. Some Syrian intelligence officers were hiding among those workers which brought more racism towards the Syrian Proletariat as it already existed for political factors.

Some left-wing activists attempted to organize a fresh new left against all political movements but gradually their radicalism became absorbed into bandwagonning with stronger parties.

A Major Obstacle and Threat

In 1998 - 1999, a major incident happened that shook the entire elites from place. I was specially active in those eras getting my skull bashed in demand for the implementation of such activism. That incident probably was the first block to trigger a chain reaction series to unify the Lebanese proletariat, which was Civil Marriage. The Lebanese President, the late Elias Hrawi, decides that civil marriage needs to be implemented. As leftists, we have been demanding Civil Marriage for decades and the abolishment of Law of Personal Affairs***. At first it was the Muslim Clerks who opposed Civil marriage, and the more fanatic ones called it as "Christian Heresy". Afterwards, the Christian clerks, and in specific the head of the Maronite and Catholic community Patriach Sfair, followed. Most of the leaders opposed it because they viewed Civil Marriage as a threat to bind the isolated sects, which meant the end of their Sect Leadership. All parties were threatened. The ones who hit the roads were the different forms of the leftwing, some members of the Free Patriotic Movement (Aoun's), the Syrian Social Nationalist Party at full scale, and few members of the Progressive Socialist Party. It should be worthy to note that in a survey for Civil Marriage, the Druze Sect most opposed Civil Marriage, jusst before the Sunna Sect. Demonstrations took place, while the Islamic Brothers and other fanatic groups attacked the peaceful demonstrations. In the end, the topic became so controversial that the executive and legislative powers decided to drop it.

Lebanon Wins Against Israel, but on what Cost

By the year 2000, the IDF withdrew from Lebanon as a result of Hezbollah operations against the occupied territory. The IDF could not tolerate any more casualties. This was a double edge sword for Lebanon. For starters, it had a unifying effect as all Lebanese political forces celebrated liberation and the end of the Israeli occupation to Lebanon. Lebanon in the year 2000, was the first Arab nation to win a battlefront against the Israelis, in a front that lasted for 22 years. The horrors of Israeli prisons down there were even condemned by the Red Cross. Lebanon as a whole celebrated this historical victory.

Yet the outcome was leading to a more severe dimension. The Anti-Syrians were happy also because now with Israel withdrawn from South Lebanon, they can finally tackle the Syrian presence in Lebanon. They demanded the full implementation of al-Taef agreement which included that the Syrians should withdraw. Demonstrations escalated, but so was military brutality. The anti-Syrian forces actually never gathered demonstrations of the size of Pro-Syrian parties who always kept celebrating the "Uniqueness of the relationship between Lebanon and Syria" or "Unity of fate and destiny of both people (Syrian and Lebanese)". Actually just when you think you heard it all regarding the art of lip service, you just have to be surprised the next day. For example the MP from Jib Jineen Firzli for example said: "Lebanon is lucky to have such a neighbor, after all, relations between Lebanon and Syria in terms of resistance dated back as far as the Romans. Togather we are stronger against Israel." The size of Anti-Syrian demonstrations were muh fewer in number for different reasons:

1) Fear to be beaten
2) Loss of Job and expose oneself to blackmail
3) Families lacking the motives to hit the street and express themselves
4) Never thought that Syria's withdrawal can occur as their sudden withdrawal would trigger a worse chaos in Lebanon as it already was.
5) Plenty also thought that Syria can never withdraw from Lebanon, specially the United States sold out on the Christians, hence why risk one's own neck to do so.

The Christians and few leftist student movements were active on that dimension. The Druze participated depending on the situation whether Walid Junblatt's position was Pro or Anti- Syrian. The Sunni street in general remained silent except for the appearance of Ahhbash and more fundementalist groups.

The Syrians kept their iron grip on Lebanon even though ex-President Amin Gemayil was allowed to return back in 1998.

The Pro-Syrians were also happy about the defeat of Israel in South Lebanon. For starters, the speech and formula they formulated about Syrian Presence and how they combined it in facing the Zionist terror paid off pretty well. Syria capitalized on Hezbollah's victory to make it an Arab Victory in general, and Syrian in specific (other than Lebanon). This victory also meant that Syrian presence assisted the Lebanese to win and that is how it was promoted over here back in 2000. This victory caused the anti-Syrians to be isolated.

This sudden withdrawal of the Israeli outside South Lebanon did not mean it did not stirr trouble for the Syrian Government. The Syrian bourgeoisie were bargaining on keeping the front open in S. Lebanon while preserving the Golan Heights as peaceful even though Israeli forces been there since Sadat's war. There bargaining chip was get Golan Heights liberalized from Lebanon as also using the weaponry of Hezbollah as means to close an iron grip on the Lebanese, even though Nasrallah clearly stated taht Hezbollah's weaponry is directed towards the invading Zionist. Once Israel withdrew, and after a month, Hezbollah declared that the Sheba'a farms* are still occupied. With time the arguement gradually shifted from liberating the Shebaa farms to defend Lebanon's security. The sad part is that the people there of this tiny spot are being used as bargaining chips for the political elites in order to accomplish military, political, or both victories. The simplest way if everyone really cared about Shebaa farms was to do a poll for its people.

When 9/11 occured, things took a different turn.


* When the War was declared in 1976, Beirut was divided supposedly to Christian East Beirut and Muslim West Beirut with a border line to seperate both. During the Israeli Invasion East Beirut was living normally as if there was no war and welcomed the IDF while West Beirut was silent like a ghost town as Israeli artillary bombed West Beirut and with no lights to appear. West and East Beirut were re-united in the early days of the election of Amin Gemayel as President, but again the split of two Beiruts occured as Amin Gemayel almost signed the peace treaty with Israel when Syria returned to the Political Arena of Lebanon after being kicked out by Israel, and the return was spearheaded by AMAL movement who shifted sides from the support of the Government and anti-Palestinian logos to Arab Nationalist slogans and Pro-Palestinian... which took the Israelis themselves into surprise as they tried to build Shiite and Christian militias more than once except the only success was the South Lebanese Army. Beirut was re-united after the Civil war was over, but technically it remained concentrated sectarian wise into three blocks:

1) West Beirut: the Cosmopolitican Area which had all Sects in it and were interactive
2) East Beirut: the Christian dominated Beirut
3) Subburbs of Beirut (al-Dahhieh): Shiite dominated area of Beirut which has been Shiite concentrated ever since Urbanization took place in the late 1960s. It is worth to note that the Suburbs used to be Communist populated, till AMAL with the help of the Syrians put the iron grip against the communists in 1983-1985 clashes.

** Nabih Berri: During the reign of Imam Moussa el Sadre, the leadership of AMAL was made of Shiite clerks and Shiites civilians. Nabih Berri was the leader of that Movement, who at first suported the Chistian dominated government at first, but when his rivals were given legislative power to his rival, he switched to Syria.

*** Law of Personal Affairs (in Arabic: Qanon el Ahhwal el Shakhsieh): is an official law that governs people according to its Sect. Even though in a lot of circumstances the Civil Law has dominated, but when it came to marriages and so on, that law always existed instead of Civil Law. For example, the Greek Orthodox are allowed to divorce while the Catholics are not allowed to. It seperates inheritance according to sect. Each sect inherits differently than the other. As leftists, we opposed such law as believing that Civil Law should dominate all perspectives of life and in the end it is a legal judge who should be in charge of such affairs such as marriage, divorce, and inheritance since Religion belongs at home.

****Shebaa Farms: Supposedly to be Lebanese and exists between Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria. It had a a Syrian post after Syria withdrew from the 1948 war, but the UN did not officially approve whether the land is Lebanese or Syrian. Suspicions toward the Syrian elites is as follows: If Shebaa is designated by the UN as Lebanese, Israel would withdraw in defecto according to the UN resolution 425. Later, Israel took over the land, and remained a dispute whether the land is Lebanese or not. The Syrian government accknowledged that the land is Lebanese but refuted to sign on that fact, or else Hezbollah would lose its excuse to fight invadors. The UN refuted to consider the Shebaa farms as Lebanese and considered it as Syrian. Lebanese government (current Siniora government) still argues that Shebaa Farms are Lebanese and not Syrian in order to facilitate national unity between the different political parties.

See Chapter 2: Lebanon, Israel, and Class Struggle (Chapter 2: Dwelling on the evolution of Societies) link

See Chapter 1: Lebanon, Israel, and Class Struggle (Chapter 1: Background of the Bourgeoisie) link

Lebanon, Israel, and Class Struggle (Chapter 2: Dwelling on the evolution of Societies)

Chapter 2: Dwelling on the evolution of Societies
The evolution of Lebanon and Israel differ in history. Actually Israel would differ from any neighboring country, and closest thing would be the United States, since both countries involved the expelling of natives in order to be constructed.

Lebanon like all countries has a history. Its people passed through all the eras to arrive towards its current status of a Capitalist nation. Lebanon passed through the citizenship system of the Romans, the feudal era prior to the Ottoman Empire, and evolved into Capitalism by 1860, when the silk factories opened in Mt. Lebanon and the process of urbanization occurred. Even the current Lebanon was not present when the province Mt. Lebanon was carved out, the people interacted within the community and in terms of means of production.

Israel on the other hand didn't experience any of those since they were not present. The Israeli nation existed for 80 years two thousand years ago and already they lived a Diaspora. Israel was a last minute patchwork. By 1920, the British noted that Palestine was not really empty of Arabs as the Zionists claimed. It was made 91% of non-Jews, and 9% of Jews. Two years earlier, the percentage of the Jews was 7% as the Zionists kept importing Jews into Palestine.

Lebanon was subjugated into one form of invasion after another. Actually that area in specific never experienced freedom ever since the Assyrians successfully invaded the separated Phoenician city-republics. Lebanon's means of production remained backward compared to Europe. By 1920, the infrastructure of a modern nation were placed by the French, but still a weak economy that hosts sectarian competition among the leaders kept Lebanon backwards.

Israel from day 1 of its formation emerged a modern nation as the Yishuv were organized in a European style left-wing party. I am not saying the Yishuv were leftists, that would be tackled later. The Zionists had all the modern machinery equipment as they gradually expelled Palestinians and enforced Jewish Labor on Jewish managers. They had all the latest state of the art technology while the majority of the Palestinians who had their homes for 2000 years lacked the means of such advanced production. Actually, the British also stressed on the fact that none of the Palestinian communities advance socially, because that means they will face organized Union oppositions.

Lebanon inherited centuries of social interaction while Israel was simply bringing groups to Palestine just because they are Jews and patching them up over there in terms of Labor. Israel was an enforced culture of "restoring the land of our ancestors" which is really illogical. It is as if asking the Indians in the United States to demand the restoration of their land which Europe colonialized to harvest its gold and raw materials.

While the French mandate was oppressive regarding military means towards Lebanon, by 1936, the Haganah (later to become the IDF) were receiving officially and unofficially military training under the command of Wingate. By 1939, the Zionists secretly began to develop the means of production of weaponry, in terms of rifles and grenades while extensively smuggled arms from Easten Europe behind the eyes of the hand that fed them: the British.

Palestine under the Mandate experienced such biased attitudes from the British towards the Arabs. The Zionists were technically left alone to do what they want except exceeding the line in promoting 100% free "Jewish" Palestine... ie Palestine without the Palestinians. It is empirical to distinguish Palestine before 1948 and Israel afterwards. The Zionists in Palestine had every mean of communication and media available. Actually they were given the freedom to write, unlike the Palestinians. They were already fully active on a global scale in terms of the Zionist circles to promote their "cause" of colonialism. They already established contacts with the Germans and the British during World War I, as competition between both fighting sides were promising assistance to win Palestine to their cause. Whether Germany or the British Empire, both were giving the Zionists promises. Actually some members of the parlaiment in Britain expressed dissatisfaction that the Palestinians and the Arabs lacked the means to express themselves in order to hear their side of the story.

Lebanon barely had any of the media means that the Zionists had. They underwent an enlightenment revolution back in the 19th century, and till early 20th century it became targeted by Europe and the United States as an education center. The competition was not out of love to the Lebanese people of course, rather sectarian competition between the Catholics and Protestants among the elites outside. al-Nahhar started publishing, but the closest organization was the Communists in Lebanon. By 1910, the word Socialist was translated into Arabic as "Ishtiraki", as the ideas of Marx and Lenin started arriving more extensively. The 1917 Bolshevik revolution has even encouraged the Communists to be more organized. What helped the Communists in Lebanon is the arrival of the Armenians escaping the Genocide carried by the hands of the Turks. On May Day, 1925, the first well organized Lebanese party was formed, in a demonstration of 7000 workers of all sects demanding their rights in the face of the French Imperialists. That night, it saw the birth of the Communist Party which was a merge between the Lebanese and Syrian communists with the Armenian Spartacus League headed by Artur Madayan. The first Union cell prior to that was in Bikfaya: the Tobacco Union.
By 1945, the Zionists shifted allegiance from the British to the United States as the US emerged the greatest victorious nation with most powerful military weaponry. The USA became the defender of Israel, while the Zionists already got Stalin head over heels to them as well in order to achieve regional control. Funny thing that Lenin and Trotsky opposed all forms of nationalism, and to Trotsky, it was Zionism. Lenin once expressed his opinion on Zionism and called it the "biggest superstition."

The Proletariat in that sense in Lebanon underwent class struggle as Bourgeoisie elites struggled for sectarian power. In the case of the Zionists, they did not have any clashes. The worse case was the Split between the Zionists and Revisionists, whereby the latter were even more extreme and racists. The Jewish Proletariat were already either brainwashed or blackmailed to integrate them into the project Israel. The control over importing Jewish workers to Palestine made it easier to the Zionists elites to control Palestine. Lebanon was too involved in sectarian struggles among the Sect leaders, even though the Communists and Syrian Nationalists were growing strong.

Knowing this brief introduction about Lebanon and Israel, even though it is a sudden Nation, much more sudden than Lebanon since its goal was to bring forth Jews from all over the world to Palestine, while the Lebanese simply interacted in the new borders. It is obvious that Israel had the upper hand than not only Lebanon, but all its neighbors. It had already abused the Holocaust to support its argument to commit another Holocaust on the Palestinians. It already got the non-stop imperial support from advanced countries, and more support would come whenever this entity is threatened. In the end, the Zionists were a colonialist force, Lebanon was a colonized nation. Israel was a success of a European style Colonialism, Lebanon was a victim of all forms of Colonialism, and still is a pawn of regional power play. Saying all this, the Proletariat in Palestine despite religion and Lebanon paid the price.
Read Chapter 1: Background here

Wednesday, August 23, 2006

Lebanon, Israel, and Class Struggle

Well due to my IT ignorance, chapter one of the series Lebanon, Israel, and Class Struggle, chapter 1 went two posts before this one.

This is dedicated to all the fallen Proletariat during the Lebanese war and elsewhere, may one day class awareness reaches global scale and rid ourselves from those ruling elites who do not care except themselves.

These series are introductory and by no means the details... but I will dwell on the details towards the 2006 war...

I hope you would enjoy them

Best Regards

Sunday, August 20, 2006


Well, today I have been wondering all day, why the heck I am a Communist, and specifically what is labeled as a Trotskyst. Now what I am writing is under the influence of alcohol, but still? Every time I have my hopes high, I tend to hit the wall.

We as Communists see things from different perspective that really brings headaches for our heads... the more we are involved withour sciences of Marxism, the more we have to worry. Sadly, most of the leftists in our area, at least Lebanon, are bureaucractics and suffer from the disease called Arab Nationalism or Lebanese Nationalism.

I have been involved with over 10 movements/left-wing groups, and without any distinction, all have been failure. Either bureaucracy strikes, or the new-Cons strike under the banner ofthe left.

Personally my knowledge of the Left and how I am involved is a double edge sword.

For example, the "leftists" tend to be gathered as group, now my knowledge of the sciences of Marxism teaches me that these are not really leftist and it is my job to assist them. I know it is not easy, but better than nothing... at least those who claim to be "leftists" and defend the WTO know the fear from a real Trotskyst Marxist who knows what exactly is the left and what ought to be done.

It may be a curse not to be satisfied with our activism, but it is our knowledge of the world that imposes on us as a duty what ought to be done no matter how things get bad...

Hasta La Victoria Siempre

Saturday, August 19, 2006

Lebanon, Israel, and Class Struggle (Chapter 1: Background of the Bourgoisie)

As the war ended on Lebanon 2006, or shall we say, temprarily suspended till another round of offensiveness take place, a lot of updates took place on the arena. I wanted to write a small article, but as I started to write, it ended as a huge piece. Keep in mind that this is only introductory to the details that reflected the current situation. I hope Yossi Shwartz reads this post. I will start with introducing briefly the Zionist side as splits were fewer compared to Lebanon. This is dedicated to the fallen proletariat and the activists for the refugee relief activism: yours truely MFL.


Israel bombed Lebanon in a war that ended with over 1000 Lebanese civilians dead, although Peretz proudly says that the IDF killed over 510 Hezbollah, totally contradictory if you ask me with the death tolls, and civilians been buried.

Now, I will not repeat how Israel did not attack for the sake of the two soldiers, and how USA gave Israel unlimited time to try to get the job of "fighting terror" on the expense of the Proletariat.

For starters, let us start analyzing the ruling classes in the Middle East in general, and Lebanon & Israel in specific.


Israel definitely was non-existent prior to 1948. The closest thing it came to existance as a state was around 2 milleniums ago, and it existed for 80 years till it was crushed by the Roman Empire, which increased the Diaspora. The Jews were treated as a minority, in the 16th century, for two reasons: 1) For facing Sectarianism specially the Jews refuted to abandon parts of their practices as well as belonging to the religion that crucified Christ, and 2) for emerging in general as a class involved in craftship while Europe was involved in imperial wars.

In the 17th and 18th century, two trends of Jewish currents exploded head to head with each other. The ones demanding themselves as a sect belonging into the nation, and be part of the interactive community (French Jews, Polish Jews, German Jews...erc), and those who stressed themselves as isolationists, and refuted to belong to the community they lived in for centuries. The banner that the latter carried paved way for Zionism, whose thesis was the acquisition of a nation 100% Jewish because Jews will always be oppressed. The baseline for that thesis is based on race. The Jewish culture always believed that a son can become a born Jew if the Mother is Jew. From this persective, Judaism practiced is no longer a faith in the metaphysics, but as Race who have their own religion, language, and culture. Hence, such a perspective is racist. Israel till now gives the citizenship in defecto to any person whose mother is a Jew.

Even though the Isolationists were cornered in the 19th Century with the rise of Socialism in general, and Marxism in specific, the Internationalists cornered the Isolationists. Marx himself is supposed to come from a Jewish family that became Christian due to political reasons. In his article: "On the Jewish Question", he clearly argues that the isolationist jews are crazy for demanding recognition from the "Christian" Europe, since they themselves are not willing to accept the other. When Zionism was founded, its toughest opponents were the Marxists from one side, and the Bund (Jewish Socialist Party) from the other.

Plenty of the leaders within the first and second International were Jews, the most popular were Rosa Luxemburg, Isaac Deutch, Clara Zatkin, Axl Rod, Carl Kautsky, Julius Martov, and plenty others were rising stars Marxist pioneers and all Jews.

Nevertheless the Zionists gained the advantage in the Western Part of Europe by forming the World Zionist Organization, and integrated themselves with the bourgeoisie in power. Even though non-Zionist Jews were much more in number; nevertheless the goal is to establish a nation for the Jews. The Left-Wing dominated the masses, while the Zionists approached the top officials. It is funny that the top figure of the Zionists in 1919 was assuring Lord Balfour in a meeting in Paris, that Lenin is not a Jew nor his mother.

With the pressure on the British Mandate, or so assumed since there are theories that Britain pledged the Balfour Declaration in 1917 to have the allegiance of a minority in the middle of an Arab nation in order to protect both flanks of the Suez Canal. At that time, the Jews were barely 7 % of the population of Palestine, and the Jews were living in harmony with the Muslims and Christians.

By 1939, it was clear for the Yishuv community, headed by Ben Gurion, that the acquisition of a Jewish Palestine is possible. When Britian's size shrank in size, and the British currency can no longer hold the world on its shoulders, the Zionists switched alliances to the United States in 1944. Since then, the relationship between Zionist Israel and the United States has been solid and firm.

In 1948, Israel was created, even though the Jews were not even the majority in the Jewish side of Palestine as a result of the UN partition, and Israel was recognized by all the super powers. The bourgeoisie of the Zionists were the rulers of Israel, and ever since racism between the Arabs and the Jews escalated as a result of the colonialization of the Palestine and the exodus of the Palestinians. The Zionists' clearest advantage on the Arabs till this day was its organization. It is forged in the 19th century of European Colonialism and labor Union style.

The Zionists, even though they preached safety to non-Jews in Israel, they never stuck to their word. In the end, what is required, is a Jewish nation, according to the Zionists. The base of such a nation is racism. They do not wish to have peace with their neighboring Arabs, but always offered tempting officials to the Arab ruling class to gain stability on their own grounds. Sami Hadawi's Bitter Harvest clearly reflects the atrocities and horrors from all dimensions committed by the Zionists.

To the Israelis, one goal is needed, and that is the imposing of Peace Treaties on the Arab degenerated regimes in order to focus on their own instable grounds. Till this very day, they promote Israel as the land of the Jews and give green light to all Jews who want to return "Home", who those probably have not been there since the Roman expulsion 2000 years ago.

The Zionists desperately need peace. They already assisted the King Hussein of Jordan during the Palestinian rebellion. They sent the Israeli Air Force to bomb the Syrian tanks, specially when then the official responsible for the Syrian Air force, Hafiz el-Assad, refuted to provide cover for the Syrian tanks entering Jordanian soils to assist the Palestinians. They attempted to impose peace on Lebanon during 1982 by forming a coalion with the Christian bourgeoisie of Lebanon and wanted their own man, the General of the South Lebanese Army, in the ministry of Defence or Head of the Lebanese army. Prior to the invasion of Lebanon in 1982, Egypt signed the peace treaty, and later Jordan followed.

All the peace treaties and relations with the Arab regimes that were attained was due to the assistence of the United States administration to Israeli elites. The Israelis always followed the "pre-emptive" war strategy after the Arab-Israeli war of the 1970s, and things were working great to the Israeli bourgeoisie, who remained Zionists and racists.


Lebanon's case is much more complicated. Like Israel, it is a modern nation carved out in 1920 by the French Imperialists to protect their own minority bourgoeisie, the Maronite leaders. Lebanon, emerged prior to that from a clash struggle between the Druze and Maronite leaders during the reign of the Turks.

The Maronite bourgeoisie gained the upper hand on Mt. Lebanon, which existed as an autonomies state during the Ottoman empire. The Christians, out of the Turkish attrocities, decided to flee since the 19th century. During most of the reign of the Ottomans, it was the Druz sect that dominated power. Due to the immigrations of Christians to Europe, North and South America, the Christian Maronite sect gained the upper hand as they returned from immigration and gained modern type of organization, while the Durzi power simply remained the same and degenerated as Christians gained more power due to in-flowing capital, and better organizated infrastructure. By 1920, the "greater" Lebanon was carved out of Syria, and a new competition began between the Maronites and and the Sunna Sect. While Mt. Lebanon was seperated out of its surrounding, once this new border was created, the clash of the bourgoeisie leaders of the sects began.

According to Dr el-Khazen, the Maronites and the Sunnite bourgeoisie leaders was the clash. Even though it was the Maronites who first demanded Arab Nationalism during the reign of the Turks, but once their entity is threatened, they hailed a new type of Nationalism, the Lebanese Nationalism. On the other hand, the Sunnites were denied to be part of Syria which is supposed to be a Sunni dominated Nation and the year before a short-lived Kingdom for the Saudi prince "Prince Faysal" who was a Sunni prince. Arab Nationalism and Lebanese Nationalism competed politically between the bourgeoisie leaders, while the Druz remained stagnat and the Shiite Sect existed in the peripheral, with no leadership whatsoever and clanship style of organization. There was no single bourgoeisie to unify those clanships back in the 1920s.

During the French Mandate, the Sunni Bourgoeisie and the Maronite remaining competing. The druz remainein a disentigrated feudal system while the Shiite remained scattered with few bourgeoisie in alliance to the stronger sects. Lebanon was practically neutral on the political and economical level, while the French mandate accelerated Lebanon's evolution towards a European style of politics. Labor Unions were already being formed in terms of activisms by Yaskik and Njaim in the standard Socialist manners during the Ottoman Empire.

Competition and rivalry remained between the two sects till World War II erupted. The defeat of the France in the face of the Nazi Forces caused France to lose control over its long distant colonies. Lebanon can qualify as that. At first, the Vichies (Nazi sided French) were the dominant authority, La Resistance kicked them out; however, with British supremecy and full control over three neighbouring nations, since the end of World War I, which are Iraq, the newly carved out Jordan, and Palestine, they pressured the French to give the Lebanese and Syrians their independance.

The legendary heroics of the people are remarkable as University Students demonstarted against the French Mandate in 1943, but the French could not take off any deal with the Lebanese bourgeoisie. The Lebanese bourgoeisie aware of gaining their political freedom from the French and the French's weakness due to WWII, they decided to unify their slogans. The slogans that were merged to suit the Sunnite and Maronite ideologies was as follows: Lebanese Nationalism with an Arab dimension. Once the independance got terminated a new level of bourgeoisie clashes would occur.

By the 1950s, the Druze re-emerged into the arena under a new banner, which is socialism. The newly formed Party The Socialist Progressive Party was an upgradal of the Druze sect from classical feudalism to quasi socialist-feudalist infrastrucure. The Party members were organized in a Soviet manner, while its head was a feudal character with Socialist beliefs. That leader's name is Kamal Junblatt, and his role became of wha Marx labeled in the Communist Manifesto as Feudal Socialist. He was a thinker on his own, and implemented partially plenty of socialist ideas, but in the end that character maintened a religious dimension over his ideological goals. This organization restored the Druze sect into the political arena as the PSP became more organized. Even though the party was supposed to be secular and had non-Druze members, and it was in alliance with the Lebanese Communist Party, the bulk remain Durzi in nature.

Two incidents occured in the fifties where the ever rising competition increased between the Maronite and Sunni, but the Sectarian Electoral System* contained those incidents. The PSP and Lebanese Communist Party (LCP) adopted the support of the latter since they were Arab Nationalists and demanded the liberation of Palestine. Actually the left since the early 1930s fully adopted Arab Nationalism in disagreement with the Soviet International by then fully dominated by Stalin. The camps were seperated again between the bourgoeisie. One camp demanded Lebanese nationalism, which was the spearheaded by the Maronite party al-Ahrar, and their then allies the Syrian Social Nationalist Party **,while from the other side the Sunni were the leaders of Arab Nationalism and the Arab Cause for the restoration of Palestine, but the Sunni lacked any party organization but the Druz and their allies the Communists were fully organized to take the street organization against them.

The 1960s witnessed the Arab Nationalist elites gaining grounds on the Lebanese Nationalists. At first, it was Jamal Abdul Nasser's "Victory" over Israel, France and Great Britain that in the 1950s crisis that paved popularity towards his supporters in the 1960s, in specific Lebanon and Syria. The ideas of Abdul Nasser were a unified powerful Arab Nation against Europe and US's colonialist ideas and the only solution to liberate Palestine from the Israeli nightmare. His ideas reflected on a sectarian level, and issue escalated in Lebanon due to the Unity between Syria and Egypt.

The first to suffer from the rise of Nasserism were the Communists in Lebanon and Syria. He butchered in them as the Communists even though believed in Arab Nationalism on Lebanese scale, but were trapped within the Ideological level as Internationalists. The Arab Nationalist Communists believed in an a Socialist Unified State where all Arab States merge as a mirror and reflection to the Soviet Union. Actually, the Stalinists believed it to be a continuaty of the stalinist Soviet Union. The leader of the LCP was taken to Damascus and later discovered to be killed the worse death ever, through Acid.

The Christians in Lebanon feeling their soverneignty threatened again, leaned more to Europe and the United States (as did in 1958 during Chamoun's era when the US army entered Port Beirut's harbor. Interests were threated and other interests were aroused. Again, the people were divided to serve the elites and traditional leaders). The Christians also felt more threatened as Urbanization made it to the Shiite Sect and Beirut became also a meeting point for the Proletariat belonging to that Sect,which gave the Shiite Leader el-Sadre better management as they began to be organized indirectly in a city-life groups.

Palestinian Liberation Organization grew popular in Lebanon among the Arab Nationalists, as refugee camps were mistreated and neglected ever since the expelled Palestinians (lower class) lived a miserable life in the Camps of Lebanon with no rights whatsoever. The Camps became training grounds for the PLO.

In the 1960s also, the Shiites finally started to unify under the Leadership of el Imam Moussa el Sadre. All governmental budgets were not directed towards the Shiite concentrated areas. In 1970, only 0.7% of the government budget was allocated to the extensive Shiite South. By the late 1970s, Imam el Sadre became the sole representative of the Shiite masses, and specially after his mysterious disappearance.

When the expelled Palestinians from Jordan arrived to Lebanon, the Sectarian balance of power was broken. Left-wing style of Lebanese Arab Nationalism rose, and became more intensified as the war with of el-Sadat ended with a peace treaty with Israel... the first country to sign a peace treaty with Israel in 1977. Prior to that, Christian bourgeoisie and Syrians had a common goal, the rise of Arab Nationalism which was spearheaded by the PLO and Arafat in specific. Actually, with time, the Palestinians were no longer regarded as part of a foreign policy, they became part of the Lebanese Sunni and Leftist block in the name of Arab Nationalism. The Maronites elites viewed them as foreigners, and Syria's top figure: Hafez al-Assad did not like that at all, specially he kept regarding Lebanon as part of Syria. To go in details regarding that issue, al-Assad when he was the official head of the Syrian Air Force, he refuted to send the Syrian Tanks to assist PLo's revolution in Jordan, and the Syrian tanks were sitting ducks to Israeli Air Planes.

An indirect agreement rose between al-Assad and his Cabinet, the Maronites, and Israel. The goal is to crush the Palestinian growing influence in Lebanon. Israel already recieved Bashir Gemayel (the son of Pierre Gemayel who was the leader of the Phalangist Party) and his brother Amin Gemayel used to meet with the Syrians.

As the Civil War broke, and it needed any excuse to explode, the Syrians entered Lebanon, while Israel later would enter South Lebanon to do operation Litani to clear its borders from Palestinian PLO, and was saluted as well by the Amal Movement (Imam el Sadre's movement which was the first movement organized in a sectarian manner specially that movement grew popular on the hypothesis that every time the Palestinians did a military operation, it was the Shiites who suffered).

The National Movement composed from the Druze, Syrian Nationalists, Communists, and PLO started to dominate, AMAL shifted alliances as Syria entered Lebanon to assist the Maronite elites: basically the al-Ahrar and Phalangists. This war brought nothing but the division of the Proletariat as the leaders fought for their own interests. From the 1978 till 1983, the AMAL movement indirectly supported the Phalangists and the military section of the Chrisitians spear headed by Bashir Gemayil. After Cairo and Tel- Aviv officially signed the agreement, Syria formulated the Rejectionist front and switched sides with exactly the ones it was trying to put out of business.

As Israel did its 1982 invasion due to the success of young Bashir Gemayil's success to involve them against the Syrians in the Missile Crisis of Zahli, the Israeli aimed to establish another Arab peace treaty on its border. While the maronite perspective is to restore its undisputed over whole sovereign Lebanon, the Israelis aimed for a muppet government to ease another "hot border".

Things took a different turn, and the Shiites became the spearhead to shoot the deal between the Israelis and the Amin Gemayel government, which was prepared by Philip Habib. It is worthy to notice that when the Multi-National Forces headed by the US were sent to Lebanon, the US army and Israel more than once almost shot each other as Israeli vulgarity stunned the US marines.

By the end of the 1984, Palestinians were out of the Political game, while the masses mostly women and children were massacred in the Sabra-Shatila camps. Alliances changed where in the end Iraq intervened (supported General Aoun), sects fought with eac other such as the maronite leaders Elie Hobaika (Syrian Supported) and Samir Jaajaa, Amal and the newly emereged Hezbollah got the upper hand.

By 1990, United States sold out Lebanon to Syria in return Syria supports USA in Iraq against Saddam, and the Taef accord was implemented and accepted by all except Aoun. The muppet government which was supposed to be Israeli in 1983 ended up to be Syrian in 1991. Hezbollah remained the sole carriers of weaponry, while the Maronites' leader Samir Jaajaa was locked up in Prison till 2005.

Those details will be covered in details.

* The Sectarian Electoral System was established by the French, even though a certain Michel Sheha tried to establish a sectarian system. This system goes as follows: each region in Lebanon undergoes elections, and the number of chairs reflects according to the size of the Sect. This means a Greek Orthodox can vote for the nominees available in his/her region despite the sect. Yet, if a Sunni gets 100,000 votes while a Greek Orthodox gets 50,000 votes and the head against his Greek Orthodox nominees, that candidate wins while the Sunni with 100,000 votes if not first may lose elections if he/she are not on the top or according to the number of chairs available in that region. This tool was perfect to seek re-conciliation between the various bourgeoisie rather be representative of the working class.

** The Syrian Social Nationalist Party was founded by a certain Antoun Saadi, this party demanded the unification of the "Nation" which meant Lebanon, Syria, Palestine (before Israeli colonialism) and Jordan; later Cyprus and Iraq were added to the Nation. Their arguement that this nation is geographically a single nation and historically as the people interacted with each other. The party in general was fascistic in nature, and maintained an anti-semite perspective towards the Jews, till recently some leaders started adopting seperation between the Jews and Zionists since charachters like Noam Chomsky and Tony Cliff showed popularity in Lebanon. This party is Nationalist to the Nation which calls for Souria (greater Syria), it is secular on a Lebanese scale, but anti-semite on an international scale still.